Constitution of Ethiopia
House of the People’”s Representatives of the Federal Democratic Republic of Ethiopia
The Parliament of Ethiopia is based on Ethiopian constitution of 1995, which replaced the preexisting legislative system Shengo .The parliamentary system is based on different power equations, regulations and duties which is specific to the policy adopted by the governing body.
The Parliament of Ethiopia is made up of two chambers
Upper chamber – The house of Federation
Lower chamber – The house of People’ Representatives
First elections in Ethiopia were held in June 1994 for the 547 member constituent assembly and the assembly based on the constitution of Federal Democratic Republic was formed on December 1994.The first popularly chosen elections for national parliament and regional legislature was held in Ethiopia in May – June 1995 and written about often in magazine and news articles.
In the past three different types of parliamentary systems have existed in the constitution of Ethiopia
The Parliament of Emperor Haile Selassie
The National Shengo of the Derg Regime
The Federal Parliament of Ethiopia
Parliament of Ethiopia
The current political system is based on the framework of Federal parliamentary Republic which is headed by the Prime Minister and the executive power is held by the government. The parliament selects the Prime Minister and the Federal Legislative Power is held by the government and the two chambers of the parliament.
There are total 9 ethnically divided regions governed by the parliamentary system which includes Addis Ababa; Afar; Gambela; Amhara, Benishangul/Gumaz; Dire Dawa; Somali; Harar; Oromia; Southern Nations, Nationalities, and Peoples Region; Tigray.
There are many opposition parties in the Ethiopian parliament which includes the UEDF, Somali People’s Democratic Party (SPDP), United Ethiopian Democratic Party-Medhin Party, Ethiopian Democratic League (EDL), All Ethiopian Unity Organization (AEUO), Gambela People’s Democratic Movement (GPDM), Oromo Federalist Democratic Movement (OFDM) and the Benishangul- Gumuz People’s Democratic Unity Front (BGPDUF).
Currently, most of the opposition party representatives belong to the Oromia Region.
In the Ethiopian parliamentary system, the Judiciary is governed under the constitution which was formed in 1994.
The parliament has 108 seats in the House of Federation and 547 seats in the House of People Representatives. The House of Federation has members chosen by the state assemblies for the term of five year.
The members of House of People’s Representatives are chosen through direct election for a term of six years and these members in turn elect the president.
The country has two self governing authorities
Capital Addis Ababa